Security testing is a continuous improvement process to get benefited in terms of increasing ROI (Returns On Investment). Benefits of a pen-test are short term as well as long term. Our VAPT services help companies meet their compliance requirements faster. The variety of security flaws we find in your web application are far more than any standard tools or primitive ways of pentesting. Our report gives you a detailed picture of what need to be improved in your web application inside out, from cyber security standpoint.
Users today have so many logins and passwords to remember that itís tempting to reuse credentials here or there to make life a little easier. Even though security best practices universally recommend that you have unique passwords for all your applications and websites, many people still reuse their passwords which is a problem.
Once attackers have a collection of usernames and passwords from a breached website or service (easily acquired on any number of black market websites on the internet), they know that if they use these same credentials on other websites there's a chance they'll be able to log in. No matter how tempting it may be to reuse credentials for your email, bank account, and your favorite sports forum, it's possible that one day the forum will get hacked, giving an attacker easy access to your email and bank account. When it comes to credentials, variety is essential. Password managers are available and can be helpful when it comes to managing the various credentials you use.
Taking example of a PHP application - PHP is server side language so you can't just do a view source to see a script's code. But if something happens to Apache and all of a sudden your scripts are served as plain text, people see source code they were never meant to see. Some of that code might list accessible configuration files or have sensitive information like database credentials. The solution centers around how you set up the directory structure for your application. That is, it isn't so much a problem that bad people can see some code, it's what code they can see if sensitive files are kept in a public directory. Keep important files out of the publicly-accessible directory to avoid the consequences of this blunder.Read More
Remote file inclusion is when remote files get included in your application. This is because the remote file is untrusted. It could have been maliciously modified to contain code you don't want running in your application.
Suppose you have a situation where your site at www.myplace.com includes the library www.goodpeople.com/script.php. One night, www.goodpeople.com is compromised and the contents of the file is replaced with evil code that will trash your application.
Remote file inclusion (RFI) is an attack targeting vulnerabilities in web applications that dynamically reference external scripts. The perpetrator's goal is to exploit the referencing function in an application to upload malware (e.g., backdoor shells) from a remote URL located within a different domain. The consequences of a successful RFI attack include information theft, compromised servers and a site takeover that allows for content modification. RFI refers to an inclusion attack wherein an attacker can cause the web application to include a remote file by exploiting a web application that dynamically includes external files or scripts. The consequences of a successful RFI attack include Information Disclosure and Cross-site Scripting (XSS) to Remote Code Execution.
The best way to eliminate Remote File Inclusion (RFI) vulnerabilities is to avoid dynamically including files based on user input. If this is not possible, the application should maintain a whitelist of files that can be included in order to limit the attacker's control over what gets included.
Local file inclusion (LFI) is a vector that involves uploading malicious files to servers via web browsers. The two vectors are often referenced together in the context of file inclusion attacks.
In both cases, a successful attack results in malware being uploaded to the targeted server. However, unlike RFI, LFI assaults aim to exploit insecure local file upload functions that fail to validate user-supplied/controlled input. As a result, malicious character uploads and directory/path traversal attacks are allowed for. Perpetrators can then directly upload malware to a compromised system, as opposed to retrieving it using a tempered external referencing function from a remote location.
Local File inclusion (LFI), or simply File Inclusion, refers to an inclusion attack through which an attacker can trick the web application in including files on the web server by exploiting functionality that dynamically includes local files or scripts. The consequence of a successful LFI attack includes Directory Traversal and Information Disclosure as well as Remote Code Execution.
Typically, Local File Inclusion (LFI) occurs, when an application gets the path to the file that has to be included as an input without treating it as untrusted input. This would allow a local file to be supplied to the include statement.
The best way to eliminate Local File Inclusion (LFI) vulnerabilities is to avoid dynamically including files based on user input. If this is not possible, the application should maintain a whitelist of files that can be included in order to limit the attacker's control over what gets included.
Properly controlling access to web content is crucial for running a secure web server. Directory traversal is an HTTP exploit which allows attackers to access restricted directories and execute commands outside of the web server's root directory.
Web servers provide two main levels of security mechanisms Access Control Lists (ACLs) and Root directory
An Access Control List is used in the authorization process. It is a list which the web server's administrator uses to indicate which users or groups are able to access, modify or execute particular files on the server, as well as other access rights. With a system vulnerable to directory traversal, an attacker can make use of this vulnerability to step out of the root directory and access other parts of the file system. This might give the attacker the ability to view restricted files, or even more dangerous, allowing the attacker to execute powerful commands on the web server which can lead to a full compromise of the system. Depending on how the website access is set up, the attacker will execute commands by impersonating himself as the user which is associated with "the website". Therefore it all depends on what the website user has been given access to in the system.
Apart from vulnerabilities in the code, even the web server itself can be open to directory traversal attacks. The problem can either be incorporated into the web server software or inside some sample script files left available on the server. The vulnerability has been fixed in the latest versions of web server software, but there are web servers online which are still using older versions of IIS and Apache which might be open to directory traversal attacks. Even tough you might be using a web server software version that has fixed this vulnerability, you might still have some sensitive default script directories exposed which are well known to hackers.
This attack, like so many of the others, looks for for a site where the security is not all that it should be, and when if finds one, it causes files to be accessed that the owner did not plan to make publicly accessible. It's also known as the ../ (dot, dot, slash) attack, the climbing attack, and the backtracking attack. There are a few ways to protect against this attack. The first is to wish really, really hard that it won't happen to you. Sometimes wishing on fairies and unicorns will help. Sometimes it doesn't. The second is to define what pages can be returned for a given request using whitelisting. Another option is to convert file paths to absolute paths and make sure they're referencing files in allowed directories.
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