Exploiting website vulnerabilities is Number One problem in the world. This is solely because website are open to internet and hence can potentially expose sensitive data which interests the evil hackers.
Websites are typically vulnerable to code based or network based attacks. This enables hackers to take over and control system components such as routers, firewalls, switches and servers and in worst cases, the website code. Even though the website is plain simple and static html based, it needs detailed pen-testing (VAPT testing), and is often forgotten by IT management.
SQL injection vulnerabilities remain a headache for Web app developers, security professionals and database administrators . In a recent survey of 800 IT security pros and developers by the Ponemon Institute and app security firm Security Innovation, 42% of developers and 46% of security practitioners admitted SQL injection at the
application layer had been exploited in a recent breach against their organizations. The responses made SQL injection the most-cited attack vector on a list that included cross-site scripting and privilege escalation.
SQL injection attacks exploit nonvalidated user input to issue commands through an application to a back-end database. Finding the holes through which these attacks can be launched isn’t all that difficult. One of the first things attackers like to do is to see how an application handles errors. Another way to search for vulnerable sites is through Google hacking. Google hacking uses search engines to find security gaps by leveraging the mountains of data they index. An attacker might start by entering a search query—called a Google Dork— designed to locate results that could offer a clue about sites that might be vulnerable. There are a number of Google Dorks that can be useful for a hacker searching for a SQL injection vulnerability to exploit.
Fortunately, SQL injection vulnerabilities are relatively easy to prevent. One strategy is to sanitize user input. Another is to use parameterized queries and stored procedures. According to the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP), developers should consider using parameterized queries (prepared statements) that use placeholders for parameters whose values are ultimately supplied at execution time. Though taking this approach can negatively impact performance, it can help block attacks.
Cross site Scripting (XSS) attacks are a type of script injection in which malicious scripts are injected into web sites forms. XSS vulnerability is the most common flaw in web applications. Cross site scripting attacks occur when an attacker uses a web application to send malicious code, generally in the form of a browser side script, to a different end user. Flaws that allow these attacks to succeed are quite widespread and occur anywhere a web application uses input from a user in the output it generates without validating or encoding it.
The likelihood that a site contains XSS vulnerabilities is extremely high. There are a wide variety of ways to trick web applications into relaying malicious scripts. Finding these flaws is a tricky situation and thats where a detailed and manual penetration testing comes handy.
CSRF vulnerabilities occur when a website allows an authenticated user to perform a sensitive action but does not verify that the user herself is invoking that action. The key to understanding CSRF attacks is to recognize that websites typically don't verify that a request came from an authorized user. Instead they verify only that the request came from the browser of an authorized user. Because browsers run code sent by multiple sites, there is a danger that one site will send a request to a second site, and the second site will mistakenly think that the user authorized the request.
That's the key element to understanding XSRF. Attackers are gambling that users have a validated login cookie for your website already stored in their browser. All they need to do is get that browser to make a request to your website on their behalf.
A file upload vulnerability is when an application does not accept uploads directly from site visitors. Instead, a visitor can provide a URL on the web that the application will use to fetch a file. That file will be saved to disk in a publicly accessible directory. An attacker may then access that file, execute it and gain access to the site.
Uploaded files represent a significant risk to applications. The first step in many attacks is to get some code to the system to be attacked. Then the attack only needs to find a way to get the code executed. Using a file upload helps the attacker accomplish the first step. While file upload problems are found typically in php code and frameworks, other platforms exhibit those too.
The consequences of unrestricted file upload can vary, including complete system takeover, an overloaded file system or database, forwarding attacks to back-end systems, client-side attacks, or simple defacement. It depends on what the application does with the uploaded file and especially where it is stored.
Session Fixation is an attack that permits an attacker to hijack a valid user session. The attack explores a limitation in the way the web application manages the session ID, more specifically the vulnerable web application. When authenticating a user, it doesn’t assign a new session ID, making it possible to use an existent session ID. The attack consists of obtaining a valid session ID (e.g. by connecting to the application), inducing a user to authenticate himself with that session ID, and then hijacking the user-validated session by the knowledge of the used session ID. The attacker has to provide a valid session ID and try to make the victim's browser use it.
The session fixation attack helps attacker steal an established session between the client and the server after the user logs in. Instead, the Session Fixation attack fixes an established session on the victim's browser, so the attack starts before the user logs in.
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