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Web pages work on the simply fundamental of HTTP headers, whereby the invalidated data is sent in an HTTP response header and can enable cache-poisoning, cross-site scripting, cross-user defacement, page hijacking, cookie manipulation or open redirect.

Specialized Pen Testing

Code And Content Manipulation

Privilege Escalation

Cookie Manipulation And Poisoning

Code injection vulnerabilities occur where the output or content served from a Web application can be manipulated in such a way that it triggers server-side code execution. In some poorly written Web applications that allow users to modify server-side files (such as by posting to a message board or guestbook) it is sometimes possible to inject code in the scripting language of the application itself.

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Header Manipulation vulnerabilities occur when:

  • Data enters a web application through an untrusted source, most frequently an HTTP request.
  • The data is included in an HTTP response header sent to a web user without being validated.

As with many software security vulnerabilities, Header Manipulation is a means to an end, not an end in itself. At its root, the vulnerability is straightforward: an attacker passes malicious data to a vulnerable application, and the application includes the data in an HTTP response header.

One of the most common Header Manipulation attacks is HTTP Response Splitting. To mount a successful HTTP Response Splitting exploit, the application must allow input that contains CR (carriage return, also given by %0d or \r) and LF (line feed, also given by %0a or \n)characters into the header. These characters not only give attackers control of the remaining headers and body of the response the application intends to send, but also allows them to create additional responses entirely under their control.

Many of today's modern application servers will prevent the injection of malicious characters into HTTP headers. For example, recent versions of PHP will generate a warning and stop header creation when new lines are passed to the header() function. If your version of PHP prevents setting headers with new line characters, then your application is not vulnerable to HTTP Response Splitting. However, solely filtering for new line characters can leave an application vulnerable to Cookie Manipulation or Open Redirects, so care must still be taken when setting HTTP headers with user input.

Cross-User Defacement:

Cache Poisoning

Cross-Site Scripting

Page Hijacking

Cookie Manipulation: